Origin of Surname
The surname Bisson is one of the oldest names in the Channel Islands. It was originally du Buisson.
The derivation of the original du Buisson name is thought to be from the French for bush or thicket, suggesting that a du Buisson ancestor was living in a bushy area, possibly adjoining a village or settlement, to which it had given its name. There are alternative suggestions that it meant a fiefless man, or even that it was derived from besson old French for 'twin', but neither of these is supported by evidence in Normandy, where the name originates.
The loss of the 'u' from the surname came about because the pronunciation, in the Norman-French language, was identical whichever way the name was spelt.
The Rev J A Messervy wrote that "the Bissons of Jersey are descended from a good French source, which, from the 12th century had ties with Jersey". It is apparent that prior to the mid-12th century, the Norman du Buissons were already represented in two different parts of the Island, doubtless in two branches, holding land, one in the east, with ties to Grouville and with a fief, the Fief du Buisson, in St Helier, and one in the west, in St Brelade.
This would suggest as early a date of settlement as that of the de Carterets and others, among the Island`s first recorded seigneurial families. Although the names of the early holders of the Fief du Buisson have not survived, the Grouville du Buisson link is well-attested, as also is that of St Brelade. The earliest mention of the surname, in relation to the Channel Islands, is from the archives of St Lo in Normandy : In 1149 Sir Geoffrey du Buisson with Roger du Buisson, his son, made a gift to the Abbey of Lessay of the Church of St Martin de Grouville (Grouville Church) in Jersey .
There is a mention in August a year earlier of the same Sir Geoffrey giving land to the Abbey of Lessay. Messervy records  that the Norman du Buissons, who, judging by their connection with Lessay, will have come from the Cotentin, "during several generations, remained.... the patrons of Grouville". As late as 1315, one of their descendants, Sir Yon du Buisson, renounced the patronage, with the consent of his son, Jehan du Buisson Ecr .
Sir Yon du Buisson is mentioned elsewhere in the 1315-1339 records of the same abbey, as is Colin du Buisson. It is evident that the du Buissons with interests in the east of the Island favoured after 1204 their Norman lands and the 'new order' there, which resulted from Normandy`s seizure by the French king, Philippe Augustus.
Members of the branch of the du Buissons holding their land in the west of the Island, in St Brelade, are first mentioned by name at a similar date, circa 1150, when E de Magneville and his sons gave to the Abbey of St Sauveur le Vicomte, the Church of St Brelade, in Jersey. It was the custom, if not necessity, that the witnesses should be local landowners. De Magneville`s gift of St Brelade's Church was witnessed by Richard and Anquetil Buisson.
In 1324, Richard du Buisson was one of the electores of St Brelade  and in 1331, Colin du Buisson held a bouvée of land in St Brelade . It is from this St Brelade branch of the early du Buissons, who remained in 1204 in the Island, that most, if not all, of the modern Jersey Bissons are descended.
The early genealogy of the St Brelade branch has been extracted by Messervy, and starts with Nicolas Bisson of La Moye, who would have been born about 1440. His younger son was Germain Bisson (1475- ), whose wife, Girette, was living in 1539, as a widow. Germain is now thought to be the man of this name, who lived in St John, from whom most of the Bissons of that parish are descended. Thomas Bisson of St John was described in 1555 as fils ainé of Germain . He married a wife named Marie, who was, herself, a widow, in 1560. They had sons Collas and François, among others, both of whom left descendants in St John.
From St Brelade, two further younger sons in the mid-16th century, Pierre Bisson and Léonard Bisson, founded branches elsewhere. Pierre settled in St Peter in about 1556, following his marriage with Catherine Dumaresq, and left there descendants over the course of many generations. Léonard founded in St Lawrence what fast became the Island`s leading Bisson family, Seigneurs of the Fief Luce de Carteret. This family gave to the Island seven Constables, three Jurats, two Rectors and a Lieut-Bailiff.
When, in the latter part of the 16th century, the senior St Brelade line finally had no available male heir, recourse was had to the well-tried Jersey custom of marrying the principal heiress to a kinsman of the same name, in order to continue both the line and the surname. Nicolas Bisson, grandson of Perrin Bisson (1450-1525), of Trinity, was the chosen bridegroom. Thus the Bissons of Trinity were also, it seems, descended from the St Brelade parent stock, most likely in the mid-15th century. The Bissons of Trinity, like those of St Lawrence, produced some men of note in the form of two or three clergymen, three advocates, one of whom was Receiver-General and another, over several years, acting Greffier and two Constables.
From St Peter, if not directly from one of the two junior branches in St Brelade, will have come in the early 16th century, the Bissons or Le Gros dit Bissons of St Ouen and St Mary, which have long been called merely 'Le Gros Bisson'. Most of these families had their own junior branches in St Helier.
In St Martin there is a Bisson family, dating from the late 16th century, which has yet to be connected with any of the above branches. There is, however, no reason to doubt the affiliation.
The earliest reference to the surname Bisson/Buisson in Guernsey is in the Vale parish registers around 1540. It is not known whether the earliest Guernsey Bissons arrived in that island directly from Normandy or were from Jersey families.
The earliest proven ancestors of present-day Bissons in Jersey are Nicolas Bisson of St Brelade, ancestor of the St Brelade, St Peter and St Lawrence branches of the family, and that of St John, born about 1440, Robin Le Gros Bisson, of the St Ouen branch of the family, born about 1450, and Perrin Bisson, of the Trinity branch, also born about 1450.
Although the name du Buisson, as featured in the Assize Roll of 1309, has been taken by some as the earliest reference to the family being resident - as opposed to merely landowning - in the Island, this reference is simply a confirmation by King Edward II of the donation of Grouville Church mentioned above. Family historian Mrs Auguste Messervy, widow of J A Messervy suggests in a history of the Bisson family of St Brelade and St Lawrence, written early in the 20th century, that Nicolas Bisson and Perrin Bisson are both descended from Richard du Buisson, the 'elector' of St Brelade in 1324, and Colin du Buisson, his son, who held land in the parish in 1330, as shown in the Extente of 1331. All the available evidence therefore points to the family having settled permanently in the island before the early 14th century, but this could be seen as somewhat unusual, given that the island had by then been separated from Normandy for 100 years and property-owning families did not tend to move from the mainland to the island at that time. The actual date of settlement is therefore likely to have been much earlier, as above.
Eight Bissons are listed in the Jersey Chantry Certificate of 1550.
Le Gros Bisson
The Le Gros Bissons, farming people of Saint Ouen and Saint Mary in the north-west of Jersey were the first Channel Island family to have a double-barrelled name. It was not created, in the same way that so many more recent double-barrelled names were, by the marriage of a Bisson to a Le Gros, but was thought to have been used to distinguish between two Bissons living in the same area, one larger (or fatter) than the other.
However, Guy Dixon has unearthed Royal Court records from the 16th century and mentions of this branch in the Extentes, which refer to its members as Le Gros dit Bisson, a form of surname found frequently in Jersey, and indicating that the family was originally either Le Gros, and became Le Gros dit Bisson (Le Gros, called Bisson) or Bisson, called Le Gros. These 'alias' or 'dit' surnames, so frequently found in early times, are accepted as having three quite distinct reasons for existing. Often marriage to an heiress and settlement on her land will result in such a name, as with many modern double-barrelled surnames. Illegitimacy also gave rise to these dual-identity names, as did the need to distinguish between different branches of a family, often using a favourite Christian name within each branch, such as 'Le Geyt dit Rauvet' (the Ralph Le Geyts, Rauvet being the diminutive of Rauf).
- Le Gros Bisson
- Bisson, 1528
- du Buisson, 1315
- du Bisson 1315
- de Bussone, 1188
- de Buisson 1053
- de Buissun 1140
- Bison, is found in the Savoie region of France, but is not thought to be a variant of Bisson, but to come from Italy, and to derive from the local dialect word for grey.
- Bissot is found in France and may be a diminuitive of Bisson
Bisson is by far the most numerous name in Jersey church records, and unlike many long-established families, the Bissons migrated from one parish to another. The Le Gros Bissons, sometimes shown as such in registers, sometimes just listed under Bisson, are largely to be found either side of the St Ouen-St Mary border until they began to move in the early 19th century.
Other branches moved from St Brelade to Trinity and then St John. All this can make the branches very difficult to track and not nearly as many trees have been assembled as should be for this substantial family name. Many of those trees which do exist online are full of errors.
We are working all the time to add trees wherever possible, and would welcome contributions from Bisson researchers.
- The Le Gros Bisson family of St Ouen and St Mary, the definitive tree of this branch, descendants of which emigrated to Marblehead, Massachusetts and became Bessoms (and various other spellings of the Anglicised surname)
- Family tree for the Besoms of Marblehead, the emigrants' tree
- Descendants of Daniel Bisson of Trinity
- Descendants of Nicolas Bisson 1440-1503
- Descendants of Jean Bisson and Jeanne Gruchy
- The Bissons of Trinity Added 2019
- Descendants of Thomas Bisson - 2 Added 2019
The two trees below link, with the second taking the first further down
- Descendants of Collas Bisson - 16th and 17th century families
- Descendents of Jean Bisson and Jeanne Baudains
St Martin trees
- Descendants of Francois Bisson and Marie Bree of St Martin
- Descendants of Francois Bisson and Marie Bree, contains extra detail and some corrections
Benjamin Bisson descendancies - see box on right
- Descendants of Jean Bisson and Jeanne de Gruchy - 2
- Descendants of Benjamin Bisson - 3
- Descendants of Leonard Bisson, also involves Benjamins
St John and Trinity trees involving Benjamins
- Descendants of Jean Bisson A Canadian branch, with family photograph, added in 2018
- Descendants of Jean Bisson - 2
- Descendants of Benjamin Bisson - 4 Added 2018
- Descendants of Philippe Bisson
- Descendants of Philippe Bisson - 2
- Descendants of Philippe Bisson - 4, a tree created in 2019 to accommodate some of the generations previously erroneously shown in other trees
- Descendants of Philippe Bisson - 5, a Grouville family descended from a different Philippe Added 2021
Clement Bisson descendancies - see box on right
- Descendants of Clement Bisson The only one of these trees we believe to be accurate, further expanded and corrected in October 2018
- Descendants of Clement Bisson - 2
- Descendants of Clement Bisson - 3
- Descendants of Florent Bisson, a much longer tree showing descendants and ancestors of Clement, and claiming a France-Canada-Jersey connection.
- Bisson baptisms in Jersey
- Bisson marriages in Jersey (groom)
- Bisson marriages in Jersey (bride)
- Bisson burials in Jersey
- Bisson baptisms to 1842, This is our original list of Bisson baptisms in the 12 parish church registers from their inception to 1842, when births were recorded centrally in Jersey. It includes some members of the Le Gros Bisson family whose births have been indexed in certain parishes under Bisson
- Le Gros Bisson baptisms to 1842, This is a list of those members of the Bisson family whose births were indexed under Le Gros Bisson
Bisson family histories
- Bisson Family of St Brelade and St Lawrence, history by Auguste Messervy
- Bisson family of St Lawrence, from Payne's Armorial
- Captain Charles Bisson, a career seaman who emigrated to Australia and died on board one of his vessels
- Oswald Bisson, an emigrant to Canada who took over his father-in-law's store
- Roy Bisson and Scouting in Jersey Added 2018
- Gwendoline Bisson's story of internment camps
- Benjamin Bisson Added 2019
- James Francis Bisson: A Transatlantic sea captain Added 2021
Bisson lineages in Guernsey
Great War service
World War 2 casualties
Le Fief du Buisson can be traced back to the 14th Century, although in these early records it had already passed out of family possession.
- Rock Vale, Trinity
- Mayfield, Trinity
- Les Fougeres
- Le Manoir de Malorey, St Lawrence
- Manor House, St Lawrence
- Le Mottee, St John
- Bel Royal Villas
- La Maison de la Croisée later known as La Croiserie, Trinity
Family baptism names
Emigration to the New World
Bissons from Jersey were among some of the earliest emigrants to both Canada and the United States of America. In Canada the name was usually retained by immigrants from the Channel Islands and France but the descendants of three Le Gros Bisson brothers and a nephew who emigrated to Marblehead, Massachussetts, in the early 18th century adopted anglicised versions of the name, including Besom, Besome and Besume.
- Besom vessels
- Family tree
- A privateer's tale A narrative of a privateer's life by Captain Philip Besom 1760-1836
Bissons in battle
Mike Bisson looks back at the role of some of his ancestors in conflicts of the past - see article
Notable family members
- Benjamin Bisson, Constable of St Lawrence, Jurat and Parliamentarian
- John Chevalier Bisson was a draper at 77 King Street during the 1880s and '90s
- Watchmaker Winter Bisson was at 11 Queen Street from the 1890s to the 1920s
These photographs of the main archway to the Fort Regent parade ground were taken in the 1930s. They show a sign being erected for the Bisson School Boys Club which was organised at the Fort from 1932 to 1939 to provide a holiday camp for underprivileged children from England.
The Fort was still owned by the Army at the time but had not been used for military purposes for some years. After the outbreak of the Second World War the last duty of the Royal Militia of the Island of Jersey was to garrison the fort from 2 September 1939 to June 1940, when its members left to serve in the Army. We have not been able to establish which Bisson family ran the camps
Brothers Charles John and Walter Bisson operated a drapery business at Halkett House, 6 King Street, where the island's Government House was previously situated. For much of the 20th century this site was home to Woolworth
There are various Bisson coats of arms, some of dubious authenticity, the majority of which feature a tree or bush as the main subject, which are the correct bearings. The coat of arms of Lieut-Bailiff Edward Leonard Bisson, featured below, shows two quarterings (additional arms, in this case, in the second and third quarters of the shield). These represented, respectively, the families of Lemprière and de Beaudenis, and are acquired only by an ancestor in the bearer's direct line, marrying an heiress who was entitled to the arms. These two quarterings were therefore only used by Edward Leonard Bisson's immediate family.
The arms of du Buisson or Bisson, of Jersey and Normandy, to which the Island`s Bissons are fully entitled, are: "Or, on a mount vert, a holly-bush proper; a bordure sable, entoyre of eight mullets of six points, pierced, of the first (the mullets are "of or" - gold).
Edouard Leonard Bisson
Typical Jersey Occupation documents: The 'blue form' filled in with his personal details by Jerripedia editor Mike Bisson's grandfather, and the card, containing the details on the identity card issued to him, together with a copy of his photograph, which was provided to the German authorities. This was not a typical ID card portrait. Most were head-on, full-face shots taken specially for a card, whereas this was clearly a professionally taken portrait
Click on any image to see the full-size version
A Mrs Bisson photographed by Ernest Baudoux
An unknown Mr Bisson photographed by Ernest Baudoux
Eliza Jane Bisson (1815-1881) wife of Captain James Manning White. The family lived in St Helier, fell on hard times, moved to Liverpool then later Greater Manchester. Their 15-year-old son, Alfred Richard White, fathered a child with their 18-year-old servant, Sarah Pruden, in Liverpool in 1861. The maid was dismissed and was recorded giving birth in a Liverpool workhouse
Edward Philip Bisson's Occupation curfew card 
Charles Le Gros Bisson appeared before Police Court Judge John Gibaut on 6 January 1866 charged will ill treating his 15-year-old son. His justification was that his son was bone-idle and had refused to work. The judge dismissed the case and warned the accused not to ill treat his son in future
New Zealand newspaper clippings
These clippings from New Zealand newspapers in the 19th century relate to the lives of William and Philip Bisson.
A notice of the WW2 death of James Chalmers Bisson, grandson of William
Memorials in St Lawrence Parish Church to (left) the Rev Amice Bisson and (right) his wife, Jeanne, nee Le Maistre, and their son Edouard Leonard Bisson, Jurat from 1832 to 1884, and long time Lieut-Bailiff. Baptised in St Lawrence on 6 January 1797, he died without heirs on 1 April 1884.
Click on any image to see a larger version. See the Jerripedia gravestone image collection page for more information about our gravestone photographs. Images of gravestones in other cemeteries will be added progressively.
- Bisson family gravestones in Gaspe: A selection of images of Bisson gravestones in cemeteries in Gaspe, Canada. Some of these will be first-generation immigrants from Jersey, some their children and descendants. Others may have no connection with the island, but that can only be determined by further research
The Quebec gravestone of Daniel Bisson and his wife Mary Ann, nee Almond
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Notes and references
- ↑ In a document destroyed during WW2 but copied earlier
- ↑ Le Cartulaire des Iles de la Manche, No. 255
- ↑ ABSJ X1, 95
- ↑ Cartulaire, Nos. 268-273
- ↑ Fragment 1 Jersey Rolls, 17 Edw. 2
- ↑ Extente
- ↑ Cour de Samedi
- ↑ This card is held by Jersey Archive. Visit The Archive online catalogue for more information. A subscription may be needed to view some of the site's content